๐——๐—˜๐—™๐—จ๐—ก๐—–๐—ง ๐—ข๐—ช๐—˜๐—ฅ๐—ฅ๐—œ ๐—ฃ๐—ฅ๐—ข๐—ฉ๐—œ๐—ก๐—–๐—˜: ๐—” ๐Ÿญ๐Ÿฌ๐Ÿฌ ๐—ฌ๐—˜๐—”๐—ฅ ๐—ง๐—œ๐— ๐—˜๐—Ÿ๐—œ๐—ก๐—˜ ๐—ข๐—™ ๐—จ๐—ก๐—œ๐—ข๐—ก๐—œ๐—ฆ๐— , ๐—ก๐—”๐—ง๐—œ๐—ข๐—ก๐—”๐—Ÿ๐—œ๐—ฆ๐—  ๐—”๐—ก๐—— ๐— ๐—œ๐—ก๐—ข๐—ฅ๐—œ๐—ง๐—ฌ ๐—”๐—š๐—œ๐—ง๐—”๐—ง๐—œ๐—ข๐—ก๐—ฆ ๐Ÿญ๐Ÿต๐Ÿฌ๐Ÿญ-๐Ÿฎ๐Ÿฌ๐Ÿฌ๐Ÿญ – By Akachukwu Vitalis

Owerri

๐๐ซ๐ž-๐€๐ฆ๐š๐ฅ๐ ๐š๐ฆ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐˜๐ž๐š๐ซ๐ฌ (๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐ŸŽ๐Ÿ -๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ๐Ÿ’)


๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐ŸŽ๐Ÿ-๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐ŸŽ๐Ÿ: The Anglo-Aro wars to subdue the domination of the Aro hegemony. Military Garrison established in Owerri.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐ŸŽ๐Ÿ‘: Owerri Native Court established.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐ŸŽ๐Ÿ”: Owerri becomes Divisional Headquarters in the Eastern Province. Egerton disapproves the proposed Owerri-Isiokpo railway.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ๐ŸŽ: The proposed Itu-Ikot Ekpene-Owerri-Oguta Railway project, declined by the colonial authorities.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ๐Ÿ: E.O Okoroji from Aro appointed Court clerk in Sogho Native Court, Ogoni.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ๐Ÿ‘-๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ’๐Ÿ“: Sierra-Leonians, Liberians Ghanians and other educated Africans dominate/pioneer clerical services, contracts, commercial firms in the city of Port-Harcourt.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ๐Ÿ‘: Port-Harcourt established on the banks of the Bonny River to export coal from Enugu mines.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ๐Ÿ’: Yellow fever outbreaks in Degema, Oguta, Bonny and Nembe. Amalgamation of the Northern and Southern protectorates of Nigeria.

Colonial Douglas Road Owerri

๐๐จ๐ฌ๐ญ-๐€๐ฆ๐š๐ฅ๐ ๐š๐ฆ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐๐ž๐ซ๐ข๐จ๐ (๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ๐Ÿ’-๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ“)

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ๐Ÿ’: ร’werri becomes a Province, covering Owerri, Aba, Okigwi, Bende, Orlu, Brass, Ahoada and Degema divisions.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ๐Ÿ“: Opobo and Afikpo divisions ceded to Calabar and Ogoja Provinces, respectively.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ๐Ÿ•: Izแปn elites, educationally privileged, dominate Owerri Province administration, having over 40% of the provincial clerks and controlling the Civil Service, even after relocation of provincial headquarters to Owerri.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ๐ŸŽ: Grand Native Club founded by African elites in Port-Harcourt. The Igbo under represented due to their being largely uneducated.
The Igbo were scorned by the privileged Izแปn and Diobu-Ikwerre as bush, socยกal ยกnferยกors, ยกnfยกdels, slaves, peasant labourers.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ๐Ÿ”: Colonial authority rejects proposed Oguta-Owerri-P.H.C
rail line. Africans admitted in administration of Port-Harcourt city. Sierra-Leonians, Ghanians,
Gambians, Yorรนbรกs, Izแปns and Efiks involved. Igbo excluded for being educationally unprivileged. Migrant Igbo Groups begin to establish town unions in Port-Harcourt.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ‘๐ŸŽ: Coastal people begin to nurse resentment towards the Igbo whose vast migrant Populations in the coastal regions caused an unhealthy competition for jobs, Political influence and land.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ‘: Several town unions of migrant Igbo from the ร’werri Onitsha and Benin provinces, unite, organize grand reception for first Igbo Medical Doctor, S.E Onwu, in Port-Harcourt. Igbo Union in Port-Harcourt, is founded, excluding indigenous Igbo peoples of Ahoada division, with no Migrant town unions in Port-Harcourt, as the city was within same district and proximity.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ“: African Community League, comprising different Ethnic bodies, formed in Port Harcourt. Rapid reception of Western Education among the Igbo. Igbo Town unions sponsor scholarship of towns men. Missions schools spread.
Igbo town unions begin to embark on Developmental projects at hometowns.

๐Œ๐ข๐ง๐จ๐ซ๐ข๐ญ๐ฒ ๐€๐ ๐ข๐ญ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐๐ž๐ซ๐ข๐จ๐ (๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ“-๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ“๐Ÿ•)

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿ•: Shell D’Arcy Exploration Company begins oil exploration in the Niger-Delta.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ’๐Ÿ: Earnest Sisei Ikoli of Nembe advocates for the creation of 4 States in Nigeria. North, South, East and West. North for Hausa, Fulani, Kanuri and other Northern minorities; West for Yorรนbรก, Edo, Urhobo, Itsekiri and Isoko, East for Igbo, Efik, Ibibio, Annang, Ogoni, and other Eastern minorities;
Southern State for only the Izแปn ethnic group!

๐๐จ๐ฏ๐ž๐ฆ๐›๐ž๐ซ 18 ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ’๐Ÿ‘: Founding of Ijaw Rivers People’s League at Enitonna High School, Port-Harcourt, with chiefs from Izแปn, Epie, แปŒgbแป‹a, Abua, Engenni, Degema, Kalabari, Okrika and Opobo tribes, with the aim of removing the areas from ร’werri Province and removing Opobo from Calabar Province.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ’๐Ÿ’: Ijaw State Union in Lagos applies pressure for the creation of Rivers Province. Provisions were made for the inclusion of Ndแปkแป‹ in Aba division, Ogoni and the Ahoada division in the Ijaw Rivers People League.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ’๐Ÿ’: National Council of Nigeria and Cameroons created. .

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ’๐Ÿ”.: Elite migrant Igbo in Port-Harcourt, take over from Educated non-Igbo Migrants in Port-Harcourt as Africans become fully involved in administration.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ’๐Ÿ”: E. T Dimeari of the C.M.S, and member representing Brass Division, calls for creation of Rivers Province.

๐€๐ฉ๐ซ๐ข๐ฅ ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ’๐Ÿ•: Arthur Richards creates Rivers Province from the Degema, Brass and Ahoada Divisions of Owerri Province. Port Harcourt becomes Headquarters. Opobo opt out of Rivers Province for fear of loosing status and prestige of being a Divisional Headquarters. Rejoins Calabar Province.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ’๐Ÿ• : Eastern Nigeria House of Assembly created in Enugu.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ’๐Ÿ–: Port-Harcourt becomes Headquarters of the Igbo State Union. Aro-Calabar, Onitsha, Arochukwu proved most difficult to integrate to the Igbo Union and NCNC.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ’๐Ÿ—: Headquarters of ร’werri Province moved to Umuahia. Zikist protests in Onitsha, Port-Harcourt and Aba over the killing of coal miners in Iva valley, Enugu. Migrant Igbo settlers win major seats in the Port-Harcourt Municipal Council election, ousting the Sierra-Leonians, Ghanians and Gambians holding positions. The Igbo from Owerri and Onitsha Provinces, begin fierce competition for political dominance of the Port-Harcourt council.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ“๐ŸŽ: Shell BP relocates headquarters from ร’werri to Port-Harcourt.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ“๐ŸŽ : Yoruba-Igbo conflicts in Lagos.

Colonial Government school Owerri now Government college.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ“๐Ÿ.: Ijaw Union reformed. Harold Wilcox Biriye becomes President. Fights for Izแปn dominance of the Municipal Council of Port-Harcourt.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ“๐Ÿ: Politicization of the Igbo State Union. Opposition spread propaganda of the NCNC being a solely Igbo project, as Nnamdi Azikiwe heads both the NCNC and the Igbo State Union.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ“๐Ÿ‘: Igbo State Union becomes major critic and opposition of the NCNC. Calabar-Ogoja-Rivers State movement begins in Uyo. Eastest Regional Government crisis. NCNC expells Eyo-Ita. Eyoita forms National Independence Party.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ“๐Ÿ’: Nnamdi Azikiwe emerges the Premier of the East. Leaders of Ijaw Union meet Awolowo and Action Group leaders, introducing A.G to the Rivers Province as opposition against the NCNC. Yorรนbรก dominated A.G,
supports the creation of the Calabar-Ogoja-Rivers State. NCNC allies with Fulani NEPU.

๐‰๐ฎ๐ฅ๐ฒ 4, ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ“๐Ÿ”: Formation of Rivers Chiefs and People’s Conference moved by Chief P.G Warmate.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ“๐Ÿ”: Oil discovered in commercial quantities at Oloibiri.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ“๐Ÿ•: Mobil, Gulf (Chevron), Agip, Safrap(Elf), Tenneco, Amoseas become active in Nigeria’s oil sector.

๐“๐ก๐ž ๐–๐ข๐ฅ๐ฅ๐ข๐ง๐ค๐ฌ ๐‚๐จ๐ฆ๐ฆ๐ข๐ฌ๐ฌ๐ข๐จ๐ง ๐‡๐ž๐š๐ซ๐ข๐ง๐  ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ“๐Ÿ–

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ“๐Ÿ•: Widespread resentment for the Igbo for feared economic and political domination, among the Minorities, necessitate the establishment of Henry Willink Commission of Enquiry into Minority problem.

๐Ž๐œ๐ญ๐จ๐›๐ž๐ซ ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ“๐Ÿ•: Ikwerre, Ekpeye แปŒgba and Etche tribes of Ahoada Division, disassociate from Rivers State Movement over suspicion of intended Ijaw domination with the inclusion of the Izแปn people of the Warri Province.

๐‰๐š๐ง๐ฎ๐š๐ซ๐ฒ ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ“๐Ÿ–: Willinks Commission Hearing.


โ€ข๐‘ป๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ฐ๐’‹๐’‚๐’˜ ๐’…๐’Š๐’… ๐’๐’๐’• ๐’˜๐’‚๐’๐’• ๐‘น๐’Š๐’—๐’†๐’“๐’” ๐‘บ๐’•๐’‚๐’•๐’† ๐’˜๐’Š๐’•๐’‰๐’๐’–๐’• ๐‘ท๐’๐’“๐’•-๐‘ฏ๐’‚๐’“๐’„๐’๐’–๐’“๐’•, ๐’‚๐’ ๐’†๐’๐’—๐’Š๐’”๐’‚๐’ˆ๐’†๐’… ๐‘ฐ๐’‹๐’‚๐’˜ ๐’Ž๐’†๐’ˆ๐’‚ ๐’„๐’Š๐’•๐’š, ๐’๐’๐’† ๐’•๐’‰๐’‚๐’• ๐’ƒ๐’†๐’„๐’‚๐’Ž๐’† ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’„๐’†๐’๐’•๐’“๐’† ๐’‡๐’๐’“ ๐‘ฐ๐’‹๐’‚๐’˜ ๐‘ต๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’๐’‚๐’๐’Š๐’”๐’Ž. ๐‘ฐ๐’• ๐’Š๐’” ๐’‚๐’…๐’Ž๐’Š๐’•๐’•๐’†๐’… ๐’•๐’‰๐’‚๐’• ๐’‚๐’ ๐‘ฐ๐’‹๐’‚๐’˜ ๐‘น๐’Š๐’—๐’†๐’“๐’” ๐‘บ๐’•๐’‚๐’•๐’† ๐’˜๐’Š๐’•๐’‰๐’๐’–๐’• ๐‘ท๐’๐’“๐’•-๐‘ฏ๐’‚๐’“๐’„๐’๐’–๐’“๐’• ๐’˜๐’๐’–๐’๐’… ๐’๐’‚๐’„๐’Œ ๐’ˆ๐’†๐’๐’ˆ๐’“๐’‚๐’‘๐’‰๐’Š๐’„๐’‚๐’ ๐’„๐’๐’๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’–๐’Š๐’•๐’š ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐’ƒ๐’† ๐’†๐’„๐’๐’๐’๐’Ž๐’Š๐’„๐’‚๐’๐’๐’š ๐’–๐’๐’—๐’Š๐’‚๐’ƒ๐’๐’†.


โ€ข๐‘ป๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ฐ๐’‹๐’‚๐’˜ ๐’†๐’Ž๐’‘๐’‰๐’‚๐’„๐’Š๐’›๐’† ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’…๐’Š๐’”๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’„๐’•๐’Š๐’—๐’†๐’๐’†๐’”๐’” ๐’๐’‡ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ฐ๐’ˆ๐’ƒ๐’ ๐’ˆ๐’“๐’๐’–๐’‘๐’” ๐’๐’‡ ๐‘จ๐’‰๐’๐’‚๐’…๐’‚ ๐‘ซ๐’Š๐’—๐’Š๐’”๐’Š๐’๐’, ๐’„๐’Š๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ˆ ๐’•๐’‰๐’†๐’Š๐’“ ๐’‚๐’ˆ๐’†-๐’๐’๐’๐’ˆ ๐’“๐’†๐’๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’๐’”๐’‰๐’Š๐’‘ ๐’˜๐’Š๐’•๐’‰ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ฐ๐’Œ๐’˜๐’†๐’“๐’“๐’† ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’“๐’†๐’”๐’†๐’๐’•๐’Ž๐’†๐’๐’• ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐’„๐’๐’๐’•๐’†๐’Ž๐’‘๐’• ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ซ๐’Š๐’๐’ƒ๐’–-๐‘ฐ๐’Œ๐’˜๐’†๐’“๐’“๐’† ๐’Š๐’๐’…๐’Š๐’ˆ๐’†๐’๐’†๐’” ๐’๐’‡ ๐‘ท๐’๐’“๐’•-๐‘ฏ๐’‚๐’“๐’„๐’๐’–๐’“๐’• ๐’‰๐’‚๐’… ๐’‡๐’๐’“ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’Ž๐’Š๐’ˆ๐’“๐’‚๐’๐’• ๐‘ฐ๐’ˆ๐’ƒ๐’, ๐’‚๐’” ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ซ๐’Š๐’๐’ƒ๐’– ๐‘ฐ๐’๐’…๐’Š๐’ˆ๐’†๐’๐’†๐’” ๐’‚๐’“๐’† ๐’˜๐’๐’๐’†๐’… ๐’ƒ๐’š ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ฐ๐’‹๐’‚๐’˜ ๐’…๐’๐’Ž๐’Š๐’๐’‚๐’•๐’†๐’… ๐‘น๐’Š๐’—๐’†๐’“๐’” ๐‘บ๐’•๐’‚๐’•๐’† ๐‘ด๐’๐’—๐’†๐’Ž๐’†๐’๐’• ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ด๐’Š๐’ˆ๐’“๐’‚๐’๐’• ๐‘ฐ๐’ˆ๐’ƒ๐’/๐‘ต๐‘ช๐‘ต๐‘ช ๐’…๐’๐’Ž๐’Š๐’๐’‚๐’•๐’†๐’… ๐‘น๐’†๐’ˆ๐’Š๐’๐’๐’‚๐’ ๐‘ฎ๐’๐’—๐’†๐’“๐’๐’Ž๐’†๐’๐’• ๐’˜๐’‰๐’ ๐’๐’‘๐’‘๐’๐’”๐’† ๐‘น๐’Š๐’—๐’†๐’“๐’” ๐‘บ๐’•๐’‚๐’•๐’† ๐’„๐’“๐’†๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐’˜๐’Š๐’•๐’‰ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’Š๐’๐’„๐’๐’–๐’”๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐’๐’‡ ๐‘ท๐’๐’“๐’•-๐‘ฏ๐’‚๐’“๐’„๐’๐’–๐’“๐’•.


โ€ข๐‘จ ๐‘ซ๐’Š๐’๐’ƒ๐’– ๐’”๐’‘๐’๐’Œ๐’†๐’”๐’Ž๐’‚๐’ ๐’“๐’†๐’—๐’†๐’‚๐’๐’” ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’Š๐’๐’•๐’†๐’๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐’๐’‡ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ซ๐’Š๐’๐’ƒ๐’– ๐’•๐’ ๐’…๐’Š๐’”๐’‚๐’”๐’”๐’๐’„๐’Š๐’‚๐’•๐’† ๐’‡๐’“๐’๐’Ž ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ด๐’Š๐’ˆ๐’“๐’‚๐’๐’• ๐‘ฐ๐’ˆ๐’ƒ๐’ ๐’˜๐’‰๐’ ๐’—๐’Š๐’๐’๐’‚๐’•๐’†๐’… ๐’•๐’“๐’Š๐’ƒ๐’‚๐’ ๐’„๐’–๐’”๐’•๐’๐’Ž๐’”, ๐’ƒ๐’๐’–๐’ˆ๐’‰๐’• ๐’๐’Š๐’Ž๐’Š๐’•๐’†๐’… ๐’„๐’๐’Ž๐’Ž๐’–๐’๐’‚๐’ ๐’๐’‚๐’๐’…๐’” ๐’Š๐’๐’…๐’Š๐’”๐’„๐’“๐’Š๐’Ž๐’Š๐’๐’‚๐’•๐’†๐’๐’š, ๐’„๐’๐’Ž๐’‘๐’†๐’•๐’†๐’… ๐’Š๐’ ๐’”๐’‚๐’๐’† ๐’๐’‡ ๐’‘๐’“๐’๐’…๐’–๐’„๐’† ๐’Š๐’ ๐’Ž๐’‚๐’“๐’Œ๐’†๐’•๐’” ๐’˜๐’Š๐’•๐’‰ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’—๐’†๐’”, ๐’„๐’“๐’†๐’‚๐’•๐’†๐’… ๐’•๐’‰๐’†๐’Š๐’“ ๐’๐’˜๐’ ๐’†๐’™๐’„๐’๐’–๐’”๐’Š๐’—๐’† ๐’Ž๐’‚๐’“๐’Œ๐’†๐’•๐’”, ๐’˜๐’Š๐’•๐’‰๐’Š๐’ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ฐ๐’Œ๐’˜๐’†๐’“๐’“๐’† ๐’‚๐’“๐’†๐’‚, ๐’…๐’๐’Ž๐’Š๐’๐’‚๐’•๐’†๐’… ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐’†๐’™๐’„๐’๐’–๐’…๐’†๐’… ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ฐ๐’Œ๐’˜๐’†๐’“๐’“๐’† ๐’Š๐’ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’‚๐’‡๐’‡๐’‚๐’Š๐’“๐’” ๐’๐’‡ ๐‘จ๐’…๐’Ž๐’Š๐’๐’Š๐’”๐’•๐’“๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐’˜๐’Š๐’•๐’‰ ๐’•๐’‰๐’†๐’Š๐’“ ๐’๐’–๐’Ž๐’†๐’“๐’Š๐’„๐’‚๐’ ๐’”๐’•๐’“๐’†๐’๐’ˆ๐’•๐’‰ ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’„๐’๐’๐’๐’†๐’„๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐’๐’‡ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ต๐‘ช๐‘ต๐‘ช ๐’˜๐’Š๐’•๐’‰ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ฐ๐‘ฉ๐‘ถ ๐‘บ๐’•๐’‚๐’•๐’† ๐‘ผ๐’๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐’˜๐’‰๐’Š๐’„๐’‰ ๐’†๐’™๐’„๐’๐’–๐’…๐’†๐’… ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ฐ๐’Œ๐’˜๐’†๐’“๐’“๐’† ๐’‘๐’†๐’๐’‘๐’๐’†.


โ€ข ๐‘ป๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ฐ๐’ˆ๐’ƒ๐’ ๐’…๐’†๐’๐’†๐’ˆ๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐’˜๐’‚๐’“๐’๐’” ๐‘ซ๐’Š๐’๐’ƒ๐’– ๐’๐’‡ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’„๐’๐’๐’”๐’†๐’’๐’–๐’†๐’๐’„๐’†๐’” ๐’๐’‡ ๐’ƒ๐’†๐’Š๐’๐’ˆ ๐’Š๐’ ๐’‚๐’ ๐‘ฐ๐’‹๐’‚๐’˜ ๐’…๐’๐’Ž๐’Š๐’๐’‚๐’•๐’†๐’… ๐‘น๐’Š๐’—๐’†๐’“๐’” ๐‘บ๐’•๐’‚๐’•๐’†. ๐‘ช๐’‰๐’Š๐’†๐’‡ ๐‘ฑ๐’๐’”๐’†๐’‘๐’‰ ๐‘พ๐’๐’ƒ๐’ ๐’๐’‡ ๐‘ซ๐’Š๐’๐’ƒ๐’– ๐’๐’‘๐’‘๐’๐’”๐’†๐’” ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘น๐’Š๐’—๐’†๐’“๐’” ๐‘บ๐’•๐’‚๐’•๐’† ๐’Ž๐’๐’—๐’†๐’Ž๐’†๐’๐’• ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐’•๐’†๐’”๐’•๐’Š๐’‡๐’Š๐’†๐’” ๐’•๐’‰๐’‚๐’• ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ฐ๐’Œ๐’˜๐’†๐’“๐’“๐’† ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’Ž๐’Š๐’ˆ๐’“๐’‚๐’๐’• ๐‘ฐ๐’ˆ๐’ƒ๐’ ๐’‘๐’†๐’๐’‘๐’๐’† ๐’˜๐’†๐’“๐’† ๐’๐’‡ ๐’๐’๐’† ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’”๐’‚๐’Ž๐’† ๐’‘๐’†๐’๐’‘๐’๐’† ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐’•๐’‰๐’‚๐’• ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’‘๐’†๐’๐’‘๐’๐’† ๐’‡๐’“๐’๐’Ž ๐‘ซ๐’Š๐’๐’ƒ๐’– ๐’•๐’ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’†๐’๐’…๐’” ๐’๐’‡ ๐‘ถ๐’๐’Š๐’•๐’”๐’‰๐’‚ ๐‘ท๐’“๐’๐’—๐’Š๐’๐’„๐’†, ๐’˜๐’†๐’“๐’† ๐’๐’๐’† ๐’‘๐’†๐’๐’‘๐’๐’†.


โ€ขChief Wobo is opposed by Diobu people who supported the inclusion of Diobu in a separate Rivers State.


โ€ข The commission notes the reluctance of the mainland Igbos to loose Port-Harcourt and notes the overwhelming Support for Rivers State Creation from the Degema, Ogoni and Brass divisions, while noting the problems the inclusion of Ahoada division and Port-Harcourt in an Ijaw dominated Rivers State would create.


โ€ขIn response to the concerns of the swamps, the Willink Commission recommends the creation of a special area to comprise the Rivers Province (Excluding the Ahoada division and Port-Harcourt area, whose Indigenes were not regarded as Minorities)


โ€ขThe recommendation of a creation of the NigerDelta Development Board for the Ogoni and Ijaw (groups in the Rivers Province that were neither Igbo nor Ogoni) sections of Rivers Province and the Western Izแปn people of Warri Province. The Ahoada division, whose people were considered part of the majority tribe, was excluded.

๐๐จ๐ฌ๐ญ ๐–๐ข๐ฅ๐ฅ๐ข๐ง๐ค๐ฌ ๐‘๐ž๐ฉ๐จ๐ซ๐ญ๐ฌ ๐๐ž๐ซ๐ข๐จ๐ (๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ“๐Ÿ–-๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐ŸŽ)

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ“๐Ÿ—: Harold Biriye founds the Niger Delta Congress which later allies with the Northern People’s Congress. Igbo dominated NCNC is kicked out of alliance.

Douglas House Owerri

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐ŸŽ: Nigeria gains Independence. Mike Okilo of Brass Division becomes secretary to Tafawa Belewa. Tafawa Belewa sets committees for physical Development of the NigerDelta Special Area.

๐๐จ๐ฌ๐ญ ๐ˆ๐ง๐๐ž๐ฉ๐ž๐ง๐๐ž๐ง๐œ๐ž ๐€๐ ๐ข๐ญ๐š๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง๐ฌ (๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ-๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ•)

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ: Southern Cameroons opt out of Nigeria. The NigerDelta Development Board charged with a ten-year development plan, is established for the Minority Ethnic Nationalities in the Eastern and the Izแปn of Warri Province.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ: NCNC raises alarm on the sidelining of the East by the 1962-1968 Development plans that allocated majority of Federal projects totalling ยฃ670 Million for the North alone.

๐ƒ๐ž๐œ๐ž๐ฆ๐›๐ž๐ซ 10, ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ :
The Ahoada division and Port-Harcourt areas were exempted but for social, economic and adminstrative expediencies, the headquarters of the NDDB is sited in Azikiwe Road, Port-Harcourt, seen by the Izแปn as an Ijaw capital city.
The Dutch and British in the NDDB carry out intensive study of the NigerDelta.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ‘: House of Chiefs created in the Eastern Region. The Ijaw Ethnic groups produce highest number of first class chiefs.
-แปŒgbakแป Ikwerre established with Chief J.A Oriji as pioneer Chairman.

  • Nigeria’s Census figures which doubles the Population of the North within ten years and assumed the Western Region(which combined with the Midwest had a lesser Population than the East in the previous census), larger than the East, is rejected by the Eastern Regional Government and the people of Eastern NIGERIA.
    • Niger Delta Congress, allied with Northern Nigeria, accepts the controversial figures.

20th ๐’๐ž๐ฉ๐ญ๐ž๐ฆ๐›๐ž๐ซ ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ‘: Chief Zumoh Efeke V of Yenagoa Province makes a case in the Eastern House of Chiefs for the creation of a fifth Region in Nigeria to be known as “Southern Region” which would comprise the Yenagoa, Degema, Ogoni and Uyo Provinces, Opobo Division and the Izแปn people of the Midwest, excluding the people of Port-Harcourt Province.

21 ๐’๐ž๐ฉ๐ญ๐ž๐ฆ๐›๐ž๐ซ ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ‘: ๐‘ช๐’‰๐’Š๐’†๐’‡ ๐‘ฑ๐’‚๐’„๐’Œ๐’”๐’๐’ ๐‘ถ๐’Ž๐’†๐’Œ๐’˜๐’† ๐‘จ๐’๐’†๐’“๐’–๐’„๐’‰๐’Š ๐‘ด๐’‘๐’Š ๐’๐’‡ ๐‘ฐ๐’”๐’Š๐’๐’Œ๐’‘๐’, ๐’‡๐’Š๐’“๐’”๐’• ๐’„๐’๐’‚๐’”๐’” ๐‘ฐ๐’Œ๐’˜๐’†๐’“๐’“๐’† ๐’„๐’‰๐’Š๐’†๐’‡ ๐’“๐’†๐’‘๐’“๐’†๐’”๐’†๐’๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ˆ ๐‘ท๐’๐’“๐’•-๐‘ฏ๐’‚๐’“๐’„๐’๐’–๐’“๐’• ๐‘ท๐’“๐’๐’—๐’Š๐’๐’„๐’†, ๐’„๐’‰๐’‚๐’“๐’ˆ๐’†๐’” ๐‘ช๐’‰๐’Š๐’†๐’‡ ๐’๐’–๐’Ž๐’๐’‰ ๐‘ฌ๐’‡๐’†๐’Œ๐’† ๐’๐’‡ ๐’•๐’“๐’†๐’”๐’‘๐’‚๐’”๐’”๐’Š๐’๐’ˆ ๐’‡๐’๐’“ ๐’”๐’‘๐’†๐’‚๐’Œ๐’Š๐’๐’ˆ ๐’๐’‡ ๐‘ฐ๐’‹๐’‚๐’˜ ๐’Š๐’๐’•๐’†๐’“๐’†๐’”๐’• ๐’Š๐’ ๐‘ท๐’๐’“๐’• ๐‘ฏ๐’‚๐’“๐’„๐’๐’–๐’“๐’•.

Douglas Road Owerri
  • ๐‘ช๐’‰๐’Š๐’†๐’‡ ๐‘ด๐’‘๐’Š ๐’˜๐’‚๐’“๐’๐’” ๐’ˆ๐’๐’—๐’†๐’“๐’๐’Ž๐’†๐’๐’• ๐’•๐’ ๐’Ž๐’‚๐’Œ๐’† ๐’…๐’†๐’Ž๐’‚๐’“๐’„๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐’„๐’๐’†๐’‚๐’“ ๐’˜๐’‰๐’†๐’ ๐’„๐’“๐’†๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ˆ ๐’‘๐’“๐’๐’—๐’Š๐’๐’„๐’†๐’” ๐’๐’“ ๐’…๐’Š๐’—๐’Š๐’”๐’Š๐’๐’๐’”.
    • ๐‘ฏ๐’† ๐’๐’‚๐’Ž๐’†๐’๐’•๐’” ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’”๐’Š๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ˆ ๐’๐’‡ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’‰๐’†๐’‚๐’…๐’’๐’–๐’‚๐’“๐’•๐’†๐’“๐’” ๐’๐’‡ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ต๐‘ซ๐‘ซ๐‘ฉ ๐’‚๐’• ๐‘ท๐’๐’“๐’• ๐‘ฏ๐’‚๐’“๐’„๐’๐’–๐’“๐’• ๐’Š๐’๐’”๐’•๐’†๐’‚๐’… ๐’๐’‡ ๐‘ซ๐’†๐’ˆ๐’†๐’Ž๐’‚ ๐’๐’“ ๐’€๐’†๐’๐’‚๐’ˆ๐’๐’‚ ๐‘ซ๐’Š๐’—๐’Š๐’”๐’Š๐’๐’๐’” ๐’ƒ๐’†๐’Š๐’๐’ˆ ๐’•๐’˜๐’ ๐’‘๐’“๐’๐’—๐’Š๐’๐’„๐’Š๐’‚๐’ ๐’‰๐’†๐’‚๐’…๐’’๐’–๐’‚๐’“๐’•๐’†๐’“๐’” ๐’๐’‡ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’Ž๐’Š๐’๐’๐’“๐’Š๐’•๐’š ๐’‘๐’†๐’๐’‘๐’๐’† ๐’”๐’†๐’“๐’—๐’†๐’… ๐’ƒ๐’š ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ต๐‘ซ๐‘ซ๐‘ฉ.
    • ๐‘ด๐’‘๐’Š ๐’‡๐’–๐’“๐’•๐’‰๐’†๐’“ ๐’…๐’†๐’”๐’„๐’“๐’Š๐’ƒ๐’†๐’” ๐’‘๐’†๐’๐’‘๐’๐’† ๐’Ž๐’‚๐’Œ๐’Š๐’๐’ˆ ๐’๐’๐’Š๐’”๐’† ๐’‚๐’ƒ๐’๐’–๐’• ๐’„๐’“๐’†๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐’๐’‡ ๐‘ด๐’Š๐’๐’๐’“๐’Š๐’•๐’š ๐’‚๐’“๐’†๐’‚๐’” ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐’”๐’•๐’‚๐’•๐’†๐’” ๐’‚๐’” ๐’”๐’†๐’๐’‡๐’Š๐’”๐’‰ ๐’†๐’๐’†๐’Ž๐’†๐’๐’•๐’” ๐’˜๐’‰๐’ ๐’˜๐’‚๐’๐’•๐’†๐’… ๐’•๐’ ๐’ƒ๐’† ๐’‘๐’“๐’†๐’Ž๐’Š๐’†๐’“๐’”, ๐’Ž๐’Š๐’๐’Š๐’”๐’•๐’†๐’“๐’”, ๐’‘๐’“๐’†๐’”๐’Š๐’…๐’†๐’๐’•๐’” ๐’๐’‡ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ฏ๐’๐’–๐’”๐’† ๐’๐’‡ ๐‘ช๐’‰๐’Š๐’†๐’‡๐’”, ๐’Š๐’‡ ๐’•๐’‰๐’†๐’Š๐’“ ๐’…๐’†๐’Ž๐’‚๐’๐’…๐’” ๐’˜๐’†๐’“๐’† ๐’Ž๐’†๐’•.
    • ๐‘ด๐’‘๐’Š ๐’”๐’‚๐’š๐’” ๐’•๐’‰๐’†๐’“๐’† ๐’˜๐’‚๐’” ๐’๐’ ๐’”๐’†๐’๐’”๐’† ๐’Š๐’ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’…๐’†๐’Ž๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐’‡๐’๐’“ ๐’Ž๐’Š๐’๐’๐’“๐’Š๐’•๐’š ๐’‚๐’“๐’†๐’‚ ๐’„๐’“๐’†๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐’˜๐’‰๐’†๐’ ๐’Ž๐’‚๐’๐’š ๐’‚๐’Ž๐’†๐’๐’Š๐’•๐’Š๐’†๐’” ๐’˜๐’†๐’“๐’† ๐’ƒ๐’†๐’Š๐’๐’ˆ ๐’…๐’Š๐’”๐’•๐’“๐’Š๐’ƒ๐’–๐’•๐’†๐’… ๐’•๐’ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’…๐’Š๐’‡๐’‡๐’†๐’“๐’†๐’๐’• ๐’‘๐’‚๐’“๐’•๐’” ๐’๐’‡ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’“๐’†๐’ˆ๐’Š๐’๐’

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ’.: Ikwerre stake holders clamour for inclusion in NDDB as Oil is drilled in many parts of Ikwerre Land but Ikwerre people are exempted from the benefits of the NDDB. Ikwerre is declared as a distinct Minority oil producing group.


– Elugwaraonu an Mbaise, is nominated by the Migrant Igbo Union through the Igbo Migrant dominated Diobu chapter of the NCNC, to represent the Ikwerre tribe in Ahoada Central Constituency, is defeated by an independent Ikwerre candidate, Nwobidike Nwonodi.


-Izแปn and other Ijaw people in Port-Harcourt withdraw support for the creation of Calabar-Ogoja-Rivers State over fears of being subordinate to the larger Crossriver Populations of Ibibio-Ogoja axis.


– They insist on the creation of an Izแปn dominated state to include the Western Izแปn, Opobo and Andoni, and the outlying Igbo areas of Ndoki who didn’t share any boundaries with any Izแปn or Ijaw Community.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ“: – Oil refining in Nigeria begins as a ยฃ12 million refinery is built near Port-Harcourt.

  • Isaac Adaka Boro, Sam Owonaro, Nottingham Dick establish the NigerDelta Volunteer force. Boro extols Tafawa Belewa as a protector of the Izแปn people.
    • Tafawa Belewa accuses Igbo people of being incorrigible and not admitting mistakes, flaws and wrong doings. He susoects NCNC of sponsoring Tiv unrests and the UMBC led by Joseph Tanka.
    • Z. Obi, president of Ibo State Union raises alarm over a conspiracy by the rest of Nigeria to reduce the Igbo into second class citizens.

๐‰๐š๐ง๐ฎ๐š๐ซ๐ฒ ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ”: Coup affects the industrialization and urbanization vision of The NDDB towards the NigerDelta

Colonial portharcourt

๐“๐ก๐ž ๐“๐ฐ๐ž๐ฅ๐ฏ๐ž ๐ƒ๐š๐ฒ ๐‘๐ž๐ฏ๐จ๐ฅ๐ฎ๐ญ๐ข๐จ๐ง
(๐…๐ž๐›๐ซ๐ฎ๐š๐ซ๐ฒ ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ‘ – ๐Œ๐š๐ซ๐œ๐ก ๐Ÿ” ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ”)
Niger Delta Volunteer Force begins violent Agitations for secession of a NigerDelta Republic that would include only the Ijaw Ethnic groups of the Rivers area.

  • Adaka Boro leads the secession, arguing that the NigerDelta was blatantly denied Development.
  • The declaration for the secession made at Kaiama .
  • Institutions and properties belonging to both the Federal and Eastern governments in Yenagoa Province, attacked.
    • NDDB Outpost attacked.
    • Administrators of non Izแปn origin attacked in the multi Ethnic Province of Yenagoa. NCNC Officials attacked.
    • Looting of shops and businesses belonging to non Izแปn people was encouraged and justified as the collection of non-Izแปn tax.
      • NDVF subdued by the Eastern Region Military Government. Adaka Boro is arrested.

๐๐จ๐ฌ๐ญ ๐Œ๐ข๐ฅ๐ข๐ญ๐š๐ซ๐ฒ ๐‚๐จ๐ฎ๐ฉ ๐„๐ฏ๐ž๐ง๐ญ๐ฌ
(๐‰๐ฎ๐ฅ๐ฒ ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ” -๐‰๐ฎ๐ฅ๐ฒ ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ•)

๐‰๐ฎ๐ฅ๐ฒ ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ”: Counter military coup. Igbo and other Easterners massacred in their tens of thousands in Northern and Western Nigeria.

๐€๐ฎ๐ ๐ฎ๐ฌ๐ญ ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ”:
Ojukwu’s speech imply the inevitability of Nigeria’s secession.

  • Mass return of Igbo and Easterners.
    • Gowon’s government encourages anti-Igbo sentiments among the Eastern minorities. However, it fails as the groups in the East become united by the pogroms in the North.
      -Eastern Regional Government creates more provinces and gives key positions and Developments to the non-Igbo Minority in the East to pacify them.

๐’๐ž๐ฉ๐ญ๐ž๐ฆ๐›๐ž๐ซ 10 ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ”:
Rivers leaders delegate chiefs to Gowon in Lagos to press for the creation of Rivers State, taking advantage of the anti Igbo And Eastern government sentiments in Nigeria.


– Ojukwu pledges Support for state creation on the condition that it would not be built on hate, fear, spite and anti-Igbo sentiments.


– Chief Oriji of Emohua tortured in detention after presenting memorandum for Rivers State creation at the Ad Hoc Constitutional Committee.

๐Ž๐œ๐ญ๐จ๐›๐ž๐ซ ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ”: Talks of secession.

๐Œ๐š๐ฒ ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ•: States created in undermining support for Biafra. The Igbo ethnic boundary is altered as a number of Igbo Speaking Groups in the Ahoada division are a encouraged to abandon a pan Igbo identity for minority identities with the propaganda of setting the groups as victims of the hegemony of the Igbo from the hinterland. Also build on already existing ill feelings towards the Igbo to get the Minorities on the side of the Federal government.
The Ahoada division sat on huge deposit of oil and gas which the Federal military government wanted to cut off from the control of the Igbo Majority Eastern Regional government.

Colonial building Portharcourt

๐“๐ก๐ž ๐‚๐ข๐ฏ๐ข๐ฅ ๐–๐š๐ซ (๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ•-๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ•๐ŸŽ)

๐‰๐ฎ๐ฅ๐ฒ ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ•: Civil War breaks out.
๐€๐ฎ๐ ๐ฎ๐ฌ๐ญ ๐Ÿ’, ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ•: Adaka Boro released from prison. Joins Saro Wiwa and others on Nigerian side.

๐€๐ฎ๐ ๐ฎ๐ฌ๐ญ ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ• – ๐ƒ๐ž๐œ๐ž๐ฆ๐›๐ž๐ซ ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ–: 3rd Marine Commander led by Col. Benjamin Adekunle and Isaac Adaka Boro attack the shores of the Bight of Bแป‹afra, embark on “Operation Tiger Claw” in Calabar.

  • Wreck Havoc in Bonny and Opobo.
    • Izแปn People aid the sinking of Bแป‹afran ships. NCNC loyalists in the Yenagoa Province attacked. Some killed.
  • Emeyal in Ogbia division attacked and raided for Bแป‹afra and NCNC Support. Mob from neighbouring Kolo town storm Emeyal and loot valuable properties after Emeyal people dispersed. -Adaka Boro is killed on 9th May in Ogu,Okrika.
    • Port-Harcourt falls to the Nigerian troops. Elechi Amadi is appointed administrator of Port-Harcourt. Migrant Igbos are cut off from the city of Port-Harcourt.
    • Ken Saro Wiwa becomes Administrator of Bonny and later Commissioner.
    • Hundreds of Aro-Ikwerre people killed in Igwuruta and Aluu. Many other Aro-Ikwerre families were displaced and settled in refugee camps after the war.
    • Epie, Engenni, Degema, Abua And Emohua men accused of sabotage by the Biafran Army, after the fall of Port-Harcourt. Able bodied men taken to camps in Ahoada, tried and tortured. NCNC chiefs like Chief Mabinton of Epie, intervene.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”๐Ÿ—: The Ahiara declaration
๐‰๐š๐ง๐ฎ๐š๐ซ๐ฒ ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ•๐ŸŽ: ร’werri falls.

  • Philip Effiong announces surrender of Biafra. Civil war ends.

๐๐จ๐ฌ๐ญ ๐–๐š๐ซ ๐˜๐ž๐š๐ซ๐ฌ (๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ•๐ŸŽ-๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ—๐ŸŽ)

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ•๐ŸŽ: NCNC Ijaw and Biafra sympathizers attacked after the war ends. Francis Opigo of Bonny seen as a traitor, is almost lynched, his properties confiscated.

  • Port-Harcourt under Ijaw control after migrant Igbo left the city. The Ijaw had no intention of permitting the migrant Igbo return to Port Harcourt and reassume dominant/political position.
    • Security clearance by the military makes it difficult for employment and residence of Igbos in Port-Harcourt. Many Igbo return to Port Harcourt heartbroken to find their properties confiscated.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ•๐Ÿ – ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ•๐Ÿ‘ : Nigerian National Oil Company founded. Rivers State government exiles Amanyanabo of Kalabari, HRM Princewill Frederick Amachree, de-recognises the stools of Chief Jackson Mpi of Isiokpo and the Amanyanabo of Kalabari, Samuel Uwakwe-Ogan.

Colonial building Portharcourt


– ๐‘ฌ๐’‚๐’”๐’• ๐‘ช๐’†๐’๐’•๐’“๐’‚๐’ ๐’”๐’•๐’‚๐’•๐’† ๐’Š๐’ ๐’ƒ๐’‚๐’•๐’•๐’๐’† ๐’•๐’ ๐’“๐’†๐’„๐’๐’—๐’†๐’“ ๐’Ž๐’‚๐’Š๐’๐’๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐‘ฐ๐’ˆ๐’ƒ๐’ ๐‘ท๐’“๐’๐’‘๐’†๐’“๐’•๐’Š๐’†๐’” ๐’Š๐’ ๐‘ท๐’๐’“๐’•-๐‘ฏ๐’‚๐’“๐’„๐’๐’–๐’“๐’•, ๐’—๐’‚๐’๐’–๐’†๐’… ๐’‚๐’• 56 ๐’Ž๐’Š๐’๐’๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐‘ท๐’๐’–๐’๐’…๐’”.


– ๐‘จ๐’ƒ๐’‚๐’๐’…๐’๐’๐’†๐’… ๐’‘๐’“๐’๐’‘๐’†๐’“๐’•๐’š ๐’”๐’‚๐’ˆ๐’‚ ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐’‚๐’๐’•๐’Š ๐‘ฐ๐’ˆ๐’ƒ๐’ ๐’‘๐’๐’๐’Š๐’„๐’Š๐’†๐’” ๐’๐’‡ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘น๐’Š๐’—๐’†๐’“๐’” ๐‘บ๐’•๐’‚๐’•๐’† ๐’ˆ๐’๐’—๐’†๐’“๐’๐’Ž๐’†๐’๐’• ๐’…๐’Š๐’”๐’„๐’๐’–๐’“๐’‚๐’ˆ๐’†๐’” ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ฐ๐’ˆ๐’ƒ๐’ ๐‘ญ๐’“๐’๐’Ž ๐’”๐’†๐’•๐’•๐’๐’Š๐’๐’ˆ ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐’Š๐’๐’—๐’†๐’”๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ˆ ๐’Š๐’ ๐‘ท๐’๐’“๐’•-๐‘ฏ๐’‚๐’“๐’„๐’๐’–๐’“๐’•.


– ๐‘ซ๐’†๐’”๐’‘๐’Š๐’•๐’† ๐’๐’Š๐’ ๐’ƒ๐’๐’๐’Ž, ๐‘บ๐’‰๐’๐’“๐’•๐’‚๐’ˆ๐’† ๐’๐’‡ ๐’”๐’Œ๐’Š๐’๐’๐’†๐’… ๐’Ž๐’‚๐’๐’‘๐’๐’˜๐’†๐’“ ๐’Š๐’ ๐‘ท๐’๐’“๐’•-๐‘ฏ๐’‚๐’“๐’„๐’๐’–๐’“๐’•, ๐’•๐’“๐’Š๐’ˆ๐’ˆ๐’†๐’“๐’” ๐’“๐’†๐’๐’๐’„๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐’๐’‡ ๐’Š๐’๐’…๐’–๐’”๐’•๐’“๐’Š๐’†๐’” ๐’•๐’ ๐’๐’•๐’‰๐’†๐’“ ๐’‘๐’‚๐’“๐’•๐’” ๐’๐’‡ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’„๐’๐’–๐’๐’•๐’“๐’š.


– ๐‘ด๐’‚๐’Š๐’๐’๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐‘ฐ๐’ˆ๐’ƒ๐’ ๐’“๐’‚๐’Š๐’๐’˜๐’‚๐’š ๐’Ž๐’†๐’, ๐’†๐’๐’•๐’“๐’†๐’‘๐’“๐’†๐’๐’†๐’–๐’“๐’” ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐’•๐’“๐’‚๐’๐’”๐’‘๐’๐’“๐’• ๐’Ž๐’‚๐’๐’‚๐’ˆ๐’†๐’“๐’” ๐’…๐’†๐’„๐’Š๐’…๐’† ๐’•๐’ ๐’ƒ๐’๐’š๐’„๐’๐’•๐’• ๐‘ท๐’๐’“๐’•-๐‘ฏ๐’‚๐’“๐’„๐’๐’–๐’“๐’• ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐‘น๐’Š๐’—๐’†๐’“๐’” ๐‘บ๐’•๐’‚๐’•๐’† ๐’‚๐’” ๐’๐’๐’† ๐’๐’‡ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘บ๐’•๐’‚๐’•๐’†๐’” ๐’˜๐’‰๐’†๐’“๐’† ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ฐ๐’ˆ๐’ƒ๐’ ๐’˜๐’†๐’“๐’† ๐’๐’๐’• ๐’˜๐’†๐’๐’„๐’๐’Ž๐’†๐’….


– ๐‘ท๐’๐’“๐’• ๐‘ฏ๐’‚๐’“๐’„๐’๐’–๐’“๐’• ๐’‘๐’๐’“๐’•๐’” ๐’‚๐’“๐’† ๐’ƒ๐’๐’š๐’„๐’๐’•๐’•๐’†๐’…. ๐‘ฐ๐’ˆ๐’ƒ๐’ ๐’Š๐’Ž๐’‘๐’๐’“๐’•๐’†๐’“๐’” ๐‘ฌ๐’™๐’‘๐’๐’“๐’•๐’†๐’“๐’” ๐’†๐’™๐’‘๐’“๐’†๐’”๐’” ๐’…๐’†๐’”๐’Š๐’“๐’† ๐’•๐’ ๐’–๐’”๐’† ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘พ๐’†๐’”๐’•๐’†๐’“๐’ ๐’‘๐’๐’“๐’•๐’”.


– ๐‘ท๐’๐’“๐’• ๐‘ฏ๐’‚๐’“๐’„๐’๐’–๐’“๐’• ๐’‘๐’๐’“๐’•๐’” ๐’‡๐’‚๐’Š๐’ ๐’•๐’ ๐’“๐’†๐’•๐’–๐’“๐’ ๐’•๐’ ๐’Š๐’•๐’” ๐’‘๐’“๐’†๐’˜๐’‚๐’“ ๐’ƒ๐’๐’๐’Ž๐’Š๐’๐’ˆ ๐’”๐’•๐’‚๐’•๐’–๐’” ๐’˜๐’‰๐’†๐’ ๐’Š๐’• ๐’˜๐’‚๐’” ๐’๐’๐’† ๐’๐’‡ ๐‘พ๐’†๐’”๐’• ๐‘จ๐’‡๐’“๐’Š๐’„๐’‚’๐’” ๐’ƒ๐’–๐’”๐’Š๐’†๐’”๐’• ๐’‘๐’๐’“๐’•๐’”.


-๐‘ป๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ณ๐’‚๐’ˆ๐’๐’” ๐‘ท๐’๐’“๐’•๐’” ๐’ƒ๐’†๐’„๐’๐’Ž๐’† ๐’”๐’†๐’“๐’Š๐’๐’–๐’”๐’๐’š ๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐’๐’—๐’†๐’“๐’˜๐’‰๐’†๐’๐’Ž๐’Š๐’๐’ˆ๐’๐’š ๐’„๐’๐’๐’ˆ๐’†๐’”๐’•๐’†๐’… ๐’…๐’†๐’”๐’‘๐’Š๐’•๐’† ๐’„๐’‚๐’๐’๐’” ๐’ƒ๐’š ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ต๐’๐’“๐’•๐’‰ ๐’‡๐’๐’“ ๐’“๐’†๐’‚๐’„๐’•๐’Š๐’—๐’‚๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’ ๐’๐’‡ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘ต๐’Š๐’ˆ๐’†๐’“๐‘ซ๐’†๐’๐’•๐’‚ ๐’‘๐’๐’“๐’•๐’”.


– ๐‘ท๐’๐’๐’Š๐’„๐’Š๐’†๐’” ๐’‚๐’…๐’‹๐’–๐’”๐’•๐’†๐’… ๐’Š๐’ ๐‘น๐’Š๐’—๐’†๐’“๐’” ๐‘บ๐’•๐’‚๐’•๐’† ๐’•๐’ ๐’†๐’๐’„๐’๐’–๐’“๐’‚๐’ˆ๐’† ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐’“๐’†๐’•๐’–๐’“๐’ ๐’๐’‡ ๐’Ž๐’‚๐’Š๐’๐’๐’‚๐’๐’… ๐‘ฐ๐’ˆ๐’ƒ๐’ ๐’•๐’ ๐’•๐’‰๐’† ๐‘บ๐’•๐’‚๐’•๐’† ๐’‚๐’Ž๐’Š๐’…๐’”๐’• ๐’„๐’๐’๐’•๐’Š๐’๐’–๐’†๐’… ๐‘ฐ๐’ˆ๐’ƒ๐’ ๐’“๐’†๐’”๐’†๐’๐’•๐’Ž๐’†๐’๐’•.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ•๐Ÿ‘: Formation of Ohanรฉzรจ Ndแป‹-Igbo to reunite the already battered and balkanized Igbo.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ•๐Ÿ”: Nasir Boundary Adjustment Commission cedes Opobo to Rivers State from Cross-River State.


-Ndoni in the Aboh area of Bendel State is added to the Ogba Region. Three Egbema villages of Aggah, Okwuzi and Mgbede are ceded to Rivers State from Imo State.


– Obigbo and some sections of Asa, as well as villages of Ndoki South of the Imo River, are ceded from Imo State into Rivers State.


– Obigbo-Asa-Ndoki area in Rivers State designated with the Ogoni name “Oyigbo”, placed under Okrika and Ogoni dominated OTELGA (Okrika/Oyigbo/Tai/Elema LGA).

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ•๐Ÿ•: First oil shock strikes.

  • Eze Sunday Nnanta Woluchem installed as Eze Epara Rebisi.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ•๐Ÿ—: Obiajunwa Wali begins to make case against the marginalization of the upland groups in Rivers State by the Ijaw majority. Begins Agitation for the creation of Port-Harcourt State for the Ikwerre, joins Ohanรฉzรจ Ndแป‹-Igbo.
– Okigbo Commission to assess revenue allocation, set up.

๐“๐ก๐ž ๐€๐œ๐ญ๐ข๐ฏ๐ข๐ฌ๐ฆ ๐๐ž๐ซ๐ข๐จ๐ (๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ—๐ŸŽ – ๐Ÿ๐ŸŽ๐ŸŽ๐Ÿ)

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ—๐ŸŽ: Ogoni Bill of Rights

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ: Agitations for new states out of Rivers State. Port-Harcourt State for the Ikwerre, Oil Rivers State for the Kalabari, Okrika, Bonny, Opobo, Andoni, Nkoro, Degema, Upland Rivers State for the Ogoni, Eleme, Etche, Ndoki, etc,
and ABAYELSA state for the Orashi-Ahoada division (Ekpeye, Ogba, Abua, Odual, Engenni), Brass, Yenagoa and Sagbama areas.

Portharcourt

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ‘: Oil Mineral Producing Area DevelopmentCommission (OMPADEC) established.

  • Series of unrests, communal clashes in NigerDelta.
  • Shell withdraws from Ogoni due to community hostility.
  • Saro Wiwa extends hand of friendship to Ohanรฉzรจ Ndแป‹-Igbo.
  • Senator Obiajunwa Wali is assassinated.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ“: Saro Wiwa and some other Ogoni activist killed.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ”: Ahoada (Orashi area) pulls out of proposed ABAYELSA state creation, over fears of continued Izแปn oppression, marginalization and domination even as boundary adjustment would include some Western Izแปn from into the proposed State.

  • BAYELSA state created with the Izแปn, แปŒgbแป‹a and Epie ad major Ethnic groups with pockets of Abureni, Isoko and Ukwuani (Osifo, Osekwenike and Abuetor). The capital is sited in the Epie town of Yenagoa.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ ๐ƒ๐ž๐œ๐ž๐ฆ๐›๐ž๐ซ ๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ–: The Kaiama Declaration birthing the Ijaw Youth Council.

๐Ÿ๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ—๐Ÿ—: Odi Massacre in Bayelsa State.

๐Ÿ๐ŸŽ๐ŸŽ๐ŸŽ: National Assembly establishes Niger Delta Development Commission for the Nine oil producing States of AkwaIbom, Delta, Rivers, Bayelsa, Edo, Ondo, Imo, Abia and Cross-River States.

Portharcourt

๐Ÿ๐ŸŽ๐ŸŽ๐Ÿ: Ethnic Human Rights Abuse Hearings at the Chief Justice Chukwudifu Oputa Panel.

The information in this post were sourced from the following:

  1. Schwerz Walter, “Nigeria”, (New York: Frederick Praeger, 1968)
  2. 1954 Colonial Reports on Nigeria, (London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1958)
  3. Smock Audrey, “Ibo Politics: The Role of Ethnic Unions in Eastern Nigeria”, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971)
  4. 1917 Owerri Provincial Estimate, National Archives, File OW274/16; Riv Prov, 1/14/245)
  5. Wolpe Howard, “Urban Politics in Nigeria: A Study of Port Harcourt”, (Berekley: University of California Press,1974
  6. B.E Aworty, N.E Samuel, “Nigeria-Sierra Leone Relationship in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries”, ๐ผ๐‘›๐‘ก๐‘’๐‘Ÿ๐‘›๐‘Ž๐‘ก๐‘–๐‘œ๐‘›๐‘Ž๐‘™ ๐ฝ๐‘œ๐‘ข๐‘Ÿ๐‘›๐‘Ž๐‘™ ๐‘œ๐‘“ ๐‘†๐‘œ๐‘๐‘–๐‘Ž๐‘™ ๐‘†๐‘๐‘–๐‘’๐‘›๐‘๐‘’ ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘‘ ๐ป๐‘ข๐‘š๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘–๐‘ก๐‘–๐‘’๐‘ , Vol.5(2), May 2020, ISBN: 2713-4698, (pp 49).
  7. Ebiegberi.J. Alagoa , A. Derefaka (Eds) “The land and people of Rivers State: Eastern Niger Delta”, (Port Harcourt: Onyoma Research Publications, 2002) 149-172
  8. E. D. W Opuogulaya, “History of the Creation of Rivers State of Nigeria”, (Port Harcourt: Government Printer, 1973), pp.3-7.
  9. G. Onosode, “Three Decades of Development Crisis in Nigeria” (Lagos: Malt House Press, 1993)
  10. Isaac A. Boro, “The Twelve Day Revolution”, (Benin City: Idodo Umeh Publishers, 1982)
  11. The Willink Commission Reports, “Reports of The Commission Appointed to Enquire into The Fears of the Minorities and the Means of Allaying Them”, (London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1958)
  12. Eastern House of Chiefs Official Reports, “Parliamentary Debates: Third Session of the Second House of Chiefs of Eastern Nigeria”, Session 1963-1964, 20-21 September 1963.
  13. Eastern House of Chiefs Official Reports, “Parliamentary Debates: Fourth Session of the Second House of Chiefs of Eastern Nigeria”, Session 1964-1965, April 6-9, 1964.
  14. Olanshile M. Akintola, “Beyond Greed and Grievance: Understanding The Multi-causal Factors of The NigerDelta conflicts” (2020), A Thesis (pp. 7)
  15. Federal Ministry of Niger-Delta Affairs, “Ethnic, Value Orientation and Leadership Development in the Niger-Delta: Recommendations for the way forward”
  16. Elias E. Courson, “Spaces of Insurgency: Petro violence and the Geography of Conflict in Nigeria’s Niger-Delta” (2016), A dissertation.
  17. T. Falola, A.Genova,
    “Historical Dictionary of Nigeria”, ๐ป๐‘–๐‘ ๐‘ก๐‘œ๐‘Ÿ๐‘–๐‘๐‘Ž๐‘™ ๐ท๐‘–๐‘๐‘ก๐‘–๐‘œ๐‘›๐‘Ž๐‘Ÿ๐‘–๐‘’๐‘  ๐‘œ๐‘“ ๐ด๐‘“๐‘Ÿ๐‘–๐‘๐‘Ž ๐ผ๐ผ๐ผ, (Maryland: The Scarecrow Press Inc., 2009)
  18. Ekanade Olumide, Tinuola Ekanade, “The First Republic and The Interface Of Ethnicity and Resource Allocation in Nigeriaโ€™s First Republic”, ๐ด๐‘“๐‘Ÿ๐‘œ-๐ด๐‘ ๐‘–๐‘Ž๐‘› ๐ฝ๐‘œ๐‘ข๐‘Ÿ๐‘›๐‘Ž๐‘™ ๐‘œ๐‘“ ๐‘†๐‘œ๐‘๐‘–๐‘Ž๐‘™ ๐‘†๐‘๐‘–๐‘’๐‘›๐‘๐‘’๐‘  Vol.2(2) June 2011ISSN: 2229 โ€“ 53134
  19. Olav Stokke, “Nigeria: An Introduction to the Politics Economy and Social Setting of Modern Nigeria”, (Uppsala: The Scandinavian Institute of African Studies, 1970)
  20. “Debating Oil Development in Africa”, ๐ด๐‘ ๐‘ ๐‘œ๐‘๐‘–๐‘Ž๐‘ก๐‘–๐‘œ๐‘› ๐‘œ๐‘“ ๐ถ๐‘œ๐‘›๐‘๐‘’๐‘Ÿ๐‘›๐‘’๐‘‘ ๐ด๐‘“๐‘Ÿ๐‘–๐‘๐‘Ž๐‘› ๐‘†๐‘โ„Ž๐‘œ๐‘™๐‘Ž๐‘Ÿ๐‘  ๐ต๐‘ข๐‘™๐‘™๐‘’๐‘ก๐‘–๐‘› Vol.64, Winter 2002/2003, ISSN: 1051-08442
  21. Wamo W. Wegbe, “Atrocities and Genocide” in M.T. Alabo (Ed), The Rivers State in One Nigeria, (Port-Harcourt: Seanas Press, 1970)
  22. Kathryn. N Dahou, “Heroes and Villains: Ijaw Nationalist Narratives of the Nigerian Civil War”, ๐ด๐‘“๐‘Ÿ๐‘–๐‘๐‘Ž๐‘› ๐ท๐‘’๐‘ฃ๐‘’๐‘™๐‘œ๐‘๐‘š๐‘’๐‘›๐‘ก. Vol.34(1), 2009. ISSN: 0850-3907, pp 47-67.
  23. Annual Colonial Reports Nigeria, “Reports for 1914” No. 678, (London : His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1916)

ยฉ Akachukwu Vitalis

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